Citizens of roughly 40 countries to which the United States ordinarily grants visa-free travel will not be affected by the requirement. Those countries include major allies like Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea.
In addition, visitors traveling on diplomatic and official visas will mostly be exempted.
As news of the plan emerged on Friday, so did criticism.
“This attempt to collect a massive amount of information on the social media activity of millions of visa applicants is yet another ineffective and deeply problematic Trump administration plan,” said Hina Shamsi, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s National Security Project. “It will infringe on the rights of immigrants and U.S. citizens by chilling freedom of speech and association, particularly because people will now have to wonder if what they say online will be misconstrued or misunderstood by a government official.”
Anil Kalhan, an associate professor of law at Drexel University who works on immigration and international human rights, wrote on Twitter, “This is unnecessarily intrusive and beyond ridiculous.”
Facebook said its position had not changed since last year, when it said: “We oppose any efforts to force travelers at the border to turn over their private account information, including passwords.”
Along with the social media information, visa applicants will be asked for past passport numbers, phone numbers and email addresses; for records of international travel; whether they have been deported or removed, or violated immigration law, in the past; and whether relatives have been involved in terrorist activities.
“Maintaining robust screening standards for visa applicants is a dynamic practice that must adapt to emerging threats,” the State Department said in a statement. “We already request limited contact information, travel history, family member information, and previous addresses from all visa applicants. Collecting this additional information from visa applicants will strengthen our process for vetting these applicants and confirming their identity.”
Millions of people each year complete the online application for a nonimmigrant visa, known as the DS-160. It takes about 90 minutes to fill out, according to the department.
The San Bernardino, Calif., terrorist attack in 2015, which killed 14 people, focused attention on immigrants’ social-media use, after officials acknowledged that they had missed signs of online radicalization in an online-messaging platform used by the husband and wife who carried out the attack.
Last year, John F. Kelly, who was then the secretary of homeland security and is now Mr. Trump’s chief of staff, told members of Congress that his department was considering asking visitors for passwords and access to online accounts.
“We want to get on their social media, with passwords,” Mr. Kelly told members of the House Homeland Security Committee. “If they don’t want to cooperate, then you don’t come in.”
So far, the government has stopped short of demanding passwords, though travelers have reported being asked for them, on a sporadic basis, at airports and other ports of entry. By some measures, the number of international visitors to the United States has begun to slip, although foreign tourism to New York City set a record last year.
The new State Department requirements will not take effect immediately. The proposal set off a 60-day period for public comment, which ends on May 29.
On Sina Weibo, one of China’s largest social media platforms, several users were critical of the plan.
“Does it mean someone’s visa application will likely be rejected if he/she has been critical of the U.S.?” one wrote. “What about your sacred ‘freedom of speech?’”
Another user wrote: “We Chinese have learned well enough the lessons to be drawn from isolation. Now it’s America’s turn.”