WASHINGTON — The longest government shutdown in United States history resulted in a “shocking” number of taxpayers’ calls to the Internal Revenue Service going unreturned or being left to languish on hold for unusually long periods, according to a government audit released on Tuesday.
The audit, by the office of the National Taxpayer Advocate, found that over five million pieces of mail went unanswered and 87,000 amended tax returns were not processed during the shutdown, when thousands of I.R.S. workers were furloughed or working without pay.
The issues were especially acute since they followed significant changes to the tax code — ushered in by President Trump’s $1.5 trillion tax overhaul — that left many people with questions about filing their returns.
The problems continued even after the shutdown, the audit found. In the week that ended Feb. 2, shortly after agency employees returned to their jobs, fewer than half of the calls to the I.R.S.’s accounts-management lines were answered, compared with nearly 90 percent during the same week last year. The typical hold time for such callers increased to 17 minutes from four minutes in 2018.
There were similar frustrations for those who called the agency’s so-called balance-due line in hopes of making payment arrangements for taxes they owed. Fewer than 7 percent of such calls were answered, and the typical wait for those that were stretched to more than 80 minutes.
I.R.S. officials said they were reviewing the taxpayer advocate’s findings.
“We are continuing to assess the impact of the shutdown on our various operations across the agency and remain proud of the many I.R.S. employees who have risen to the resulting challenges,” the agency said in a statement. “The I.R.S. is committed to continue making improvements across our information technology, tax enforcement and taxpayer service operations.”
Data released by the agency last week showed that Americans had filed 12 percent fewer returns through Feb. 2, compared with the same point in 2018, and that the I.R.S. had processed 26 percent fewer returns. The agency has given no indication — in Tuesday’s statement or otherwise — that it might consider pushing back April’s tax filing deadline in order to account for shutdown-related snags.
The taxpayer advocate’s audit did not focus solely on the shutdown’s impact and reflected an effort by the office, which is led by Nina E. Olson, to capture the typical taxpayer experience when dealing with I.R.S. The audit said many Americans’ feelings about the process could be boiled down to two words: “extreme frustration.”
The audit found that a policy change made by the Trump administration intended to simplify the tax-filing process — the creation of a “postcard size” 1040 form — has made filing more difficult because the new form does not include much of the information that many taxpayers need to complete their returns.
“The new schedules will force some taxpayers to cross-reference and transfer data such as credits, deductions and income, increasing the potential for errors to occur since the tax information is dispersed over many pages and needs to be tracked down and reported on different schedules and forms,” the report says.
The problems that became apparent during the 35-day shutdown, which ended Jan. 25, underscored some of the agency’s deeper flaws, including a reliance on 1960s-era technology, the audit found. The systems that contain the official record of taxpayer accounts are the oldest in the federal government.
“For the last 25 years the I.R.S. has tried — and been unable — to replace them,” the audit says, citing budgetary constraints.
The outdated systems deprive the I.R.S. of a comprehensive view of taxpayers’ accounts, hampering the agency’s ability to properly identify who should be targeted for outreach, collections and audits.
Inadequate financing is a primary cause of the agency’s failings, the audit found. Congress has long beat up on the I.R.S., routinely condemning its performance while cutting its budget. For example, money for technology improvements in the 2018 fiscal year was reduced 62 percent, to $110 million, from the year before.
Taxpayers who called the I.R.S. last fall for advice about how the new tax law would affect them were frequently told that there was “no tax law personnel at this time due to budgetary cuts” and were disconnected, the audit found. Part of the reason was a decision by the agency to answer tax law questions only during the three and a half months from January until tax filing day.
A lack of information has also meant that the vast majority of taxpayers eligible to use free software to file their returns electronically do not take advantage of the program. Of the 106 million taxpayers who could qualify for the free program, fewer than 2.5 million use it.